2019 World Yodel Day in Korea(After Party)

▣ Bagpipes playing (Sin Jae-yeop)

▣ You are my Sunshine (Alphorn + Pan flute playing)

 – alphorn : Choi In-goo / Pan flute : Lee Seong-hyung / guirtar : Ha Dong-wook / mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass :Kwon Su-mi

▣ Yodellady Sin Hye-sook

▶Alngel’s Yodel(Der Bergerner Bua)

 – sung and ukulele : Sin Hye-sook / guirtar : Ha Dong-wook / mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass :Kwon Su-mi / accordion : Kang Dong-hye

 ▶He Taught me how to Yodel

 – sung and ukulele : Sin Hye-sook / guirtar : Ha Dong-wook / mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass :Kwon Su-mi / accordion : Kang Dong-hye

▣ Sing along

▶5 Yodel Medely

– guirtar : Ha Dong-wook . Nam Sang-woo/ mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass :Kwon Su-mi / accordion : Kang Dong-hye / woodspoon: Lee Dae-ro

▶Happy Shepherd  (Es Burebüebli Mani Nid)

– guirtar : Ha Dong-wook . Nam Sang-woo/ mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass :Kwon Su-mi / accordion : Kang Dong-hye / woodspoon: Lee Dae-ro

▶Korean 70’s era’s pop-song Medley

– guirtar : Ha Dong-wook . Nam Sang-woo/ mandoline: Kim Sung-gi / Bass : Kwon Su-mi / accordion : Kang Dong-hye / ukulele : Sin Hye-sook / woodspoon: Lee Dae-ro

▣ Keiko Ito

▶Vorfrühlig

-composed & lyric by Emil Grolimund / Japanese translated by  武居月子Tsukiki Takei

– sung by 伊藤啓子Keiko Ito /  accordion by Manabu Hiyama

▶Ku Ku Jodel (Japanese Version)

– sung by 伊藤啓子Keiko Ito /  accordion by Manabu Hiyama

▣ Lu Tong

▶Ku Ku Jodel (Chinese Version)

– sung by 陆通Lu Tong / guitar : Lee Jae-dong

▶你像约德尔一样美(She Taught me how to Yodel)

– Chinese lyric by 陆通Lu Tong

– sung by 陆通Lu Tong / guitar : Lee Jae-dong

▣ Sofia Shkidchenko

▶Lovesick Blues

-originated by Hank Williams

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko /  guitar : Lee Jae-dong

▶Ku Ku Jodel (Ukrainian Version)

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko /  guitar : Lee Jae-dong

▣ Lee Dae-ro

▣ Lee Dae-ro

▶ Yodelings with wood spoon

– sung and woodspoon by Lee Dae-ro /  guitar : Lee Jae-dong

▣ Swiss Sparking Water스위스탄산수

▶ Rainbow in the valley (Back in the Saddle again)

– originated by Gene Autry / Korean lyric by Kim Hong-chul

– sung and guitar by Lee Jea-dong , bass by Kim Woo-jin, accordion by Kim Eun-jeong, drum by Lee Chang-dae

#yodel#YodelDay#ヨーデルデー #约德尔日 #Деньйодлю #요들의날 #요들데이 #세계요들의날 #하동욱 #신해숙 #강동혜 #권수미 #김성기 #신재업 #최인구 #이성형 #이대로 #남상우 #요들5개메들리 #천사의요들 #계곡의무지개 #KeikoIto #伊藤啓子#ManabuHiyama #檜山学 #Japan #日本 #约德尔日 #潮洛蒙 #ChaoLuomong #马头琴 #Khoomei #呼麦 #王旭 #Wangxiaxu #陆通 #LuTong #China #Y2 #스위스탄산수 #중국 #中國  #ДеньЙоделя #SofiaShkidchenko #Ukraine #우크라이나 #대한민국

2019 World Yodel Day in Korea(Main Concert)

▣ Duo Keiko Ito & Manabu Hiyama

▶Toggenburger Ländler Jödeli

– Toggenburg folksong

– sung by Keiko Ito伊藤 啓子/ accordion by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

▶ Kotoba-asobi言葉 遊び

– composed by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

– sung by Keiko Ito伊藤 啓子/ accordion by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

▶Oldbox

– composed by Nadja Räss

– sung by Keiko Ito伊藤 啓子/ accordion by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

▶ Nonbiri Iko のんびり 行こう

– composed by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

– sung by Keiko Ito伊藤 啓子/ accordion by  Manabu Hiyama檜山 学

▣ Chinese Yodelers

▶ Inflation Man膨胀

– composed & lyric by  Akiyama Sayuri

– sung by Wang Xiao Xu王小旭 / Lu Tong陆通

▶ Xiongnu匈奴

– composed & lyric by Chao Luomong潮洛蒙

– sung by : Chao Luomong潮洛蒙 / Lu Tong陆通)

▶Riding Horse走马 – A song about the life of a horse

– Uknown

– sung by : Chao Luomong潮洛蒙 / Lu Tong陆通)

▶Arirang아리랑

– Korean folksong

– sung by : Chao Luomong潮洛蒙 / Lu Tong陆通)

▣ Sofia Shkidchenko

▶How I went for the sheaves(Як Поïхав за Снопами)

– Ukrainian folksong

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko

▶ Yo De Lay (Йо Де Лей)

– composed & lyric by Julia & Sofia Shkidchenko

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko

▶ Jodelmedley
– originated by Peter Hinenn 원곡

– composed & lyric by  Janez Rakovec and others

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko

▶ I Want to be a Cowboy Sweetheart
– originated by Pasty Montana 원곡

– composed by Ruby Blevins

– sung by Sofia Shkidchenko

▣ Y2

▶Movement

– composed & lyric by Kang Dong-hye

– sung and accordion by Kang Dong-hye , sung and guitar by Koo Hyun-mo

▶Together

– composed & lyric by Kang Dong-hye

– sung and accordion by Kang Dong-hye , sung and guitar by Koo Hyun-mo

▣ Swiss Sparkling Water스위스 탄산수

▶Unchanging Friendship변함없는 우정

– composed & lyric by Lee Jea-dong

– sung and guitar by Lee Jea-dong , bass by Kim Woo-jin, accordion by Kim Eun-jeong, drum by Lee Chang-dae

▶Happy song기쁨 (In die Berg bin i gern)

– Austria Carinthia folksong

– Korean composed by Korean Alpinrose Yodel Club

– sung and guitar by Lee Jea-dong , bass by Kim Woo-jin, accordion by Kim Eun-jeong, drum by Lee Chang-dae

▶A Confession Song고백송

– composed & lyric by Lee Jea-dong

– sung and guitar by Lee Jea-dong , bass by Kim Woo-jin, accordion by Kim Eun-jeong, drum by Lee Chang-dae

#yodel#YodelDay#ヨーデルデー #约德尔日 #Деньйодлю #요들의날 #요들데이 #세계요들의날 #KeikoIto#伊藤啓子#ManabuHiyama#檜山学#Japan#日本 #约德尔日 #潮洛蒙 #ChaoLuomong #马头琴 #Khoomei #呼麦 #王旭 #Wangxiaxu #陆通 #LuTong #China #Y2 #스위스탄산수 #중국 #中國  #ДеньЙоделя #SofiaShkidchenko #Ukraine #우크라이나 #대한민국

This is the 2020 World Yodel Day online event announcement.

The online event of World Yodel Day 2019 has been completed successfully. And we are ready to prepare for the 2020 World Yodel Day online event.(already?)

The Online event for World Yodel Day is an event that brings together the hearts and minds of yodelers from all over the world who want to hold a common event that can be held together online, since it is impossible for all the world’s yodelers to come together in off-line.

So far, online event has been a way of gathering and sharing congratulations from many of the countries around the world, and in this way for seven years.

It is meaningful enough to honor all of us in this way every year, but this method has become obsolete and now we are beginning to seek about how to do a higher level joint event.

The new problem consciousness is, “How can we realize true communication through yodels?”

Based on this idea, there was a thought that came out of my head, and the same thing came to mind at the same time that the yodelers living in two different places were at the same time, and they had made the same offer to me, The 2020 World Yodel Day online event was naturally decided based on the very similar three yodelers idea.

The common idea was that ‘each yodelers who will make & sing a round for the World Yodel Day’

Proceed as follows:

1.The first yodeler sing their own Yodel Day commemorative songs.

2-1. The second yodeler listen to the first commemorative song if it will be great, they sing it again by their own another new lyrics and thier mother tongue(different arrangements are possible).

2-2. If the provided the first song is not liked to the second yodeler, the second yodeler can creates a new commemorative song for World Yodel Day and sings it.

3-1. After making the second commemorative song, the third yodeler take up to the baton.

3-2. If the provided the second song is not liked to the third yodeler, the third yodeler can provide the first songs. Then if it will be great, they sing it again by their own another new lyrics and thier mother tongue(different arrangements are possible).

3-3. If the provided all the 1st and 2nd songs are not liked to the third yodeler, the third yodeler can creates a new commemorative song for World Yodel Day and sings it.

In this way, each of the yodelers performs their skills and sings the song in relay. Of course, as mentioned above, you can arrange the songs provided, create new songs, sing freely, and change the lyrics. (We offer up to 2 songs in the order to the songs that will be played later, except for their own songs. They select one of the 2 songs previously provided or create a new song. The same rules are followed by the relay. )

Finally, take a video of the song and send it to peter@yodeler.net

The most important part of communication is ‘change the lyrics’. That is, first understand the meaning of the lyrics of the yodeler who performed the song, and then agree or disagree with the lyrics and sing again.

Wouldn’t it be this way of communication that would make the hearts of all those who loved all of the yodels once again gathered and unfolded with thoughts about the yodelers dreamed and run?

At least we’ll all hear the usual thoughts of yodelers in different places about yodels.

So it seems a bit complicated but if you have a challenging spirit, I think, this new project is a fun topic to challenge.

Already a two yodelers are making a new Yodel Day theme song by the aim for the end of August.

First of all, we will accept 24 first-runners on a first come, first served basis. Please contact us if you would like to participate in this fun global event.

Please do not create a new song immediately after contacting us. We will receive the application and notify you individually in the order of application.

If you send me a song on time according to the notice, I will collect it, then the global event with all of them will be shared around the world online on World Day of August 8 next year.

Please contact us if you would like to participate in this fun global event.

PS: The copyright of the Yodel Day commemorative songs created by the participating yodelers is owned by the yodelers around the world.

In other words, I hope that all of commemorativs songs will be free to sing, arrange and record music to the world yodelers.

Please contact only those who are willing to do so. peter@yodeler.net

We will be going to Youtube- broadcast the 2019 World Yodel Day offline festival in Korea

We will be going to Youtube- broadcast the 2019 World Yodel Day offline festival in Korea now to the world yodelers. In fact, we have been Youtube-broadcast since 3 years before, but unfortunately, now we faced some financial difficulties, so I think, we may skip this Youtube-broadcast in this time.

But I think, there were a lot of world yodelers want to watch it not only yodel-enthusiasts in Korea who are not able to participate in the event. Resultly, we also decided to continue Youtube-broadcast.

However, due to the financial difficulties mentioned above, it was not possible to spend a lot of money on the Youtube-broadcast, so it would be a rather low level online broadcast where you could just hear &watch the screen and sound without dazzling camerawork. I hope many of yours understand.

[[[ Regional broadcast time guide ]]]

▶New Zealand, Fiji, Russia (Kamchatka Region)
August 17 at 9:30 pm

▶Australia (Middle East), Papua New Guinea, Russia (Primorsky Krai)
August 17 at 7:30 pm

▶Korea, North Korea, Japan, Russia (Yakutsk region)
August 17 at 6:30 pm

▶ China, Mongolia, Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia
August 17th at 5:30 pm

▶ Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand
August 17th at 4:30 pm

▶ Bangladesh, Myanmar ( – 30 minutes), Nepal (+30 minutes)
August 17th at 3:30 pm

▶ India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Kazakhstan (+30 minutes)
August 17th at 2:30 pm

▶United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran (+30 minutes), Uzbekistan (+30 minutes)
August 17th 1:30 pm

▶Russia (Moscow), Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, Ethiopia,
Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Madagascar
: August 17 at 12:30 pm

▶France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Norway, Egypt, Libya, South Africa
:August 17, 11:30 am

▶ UK, Ireland, Portugal, Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Cameroon
August 17: 10:30 am

▶Iceland, Senegal, Ghana, Mali, Liberia
: August 17, 9:30 am

▶Greenland: August 17 7:30 am

▶Brazil and Argentina: August 17 6:30 am

▶ Eastern United States, Eastern Canada, Cuba, Jamaica,
Venezuela, Bolivia, Chile
:August 17th at 5:30 am

▶Midwest(USA), Texas(USA), Mexico
:August 17 4:30 am

▶United States West (Arizona, Nevada), Calgary (Canada), Costa Rica, Panama Texas (USA), Mexico
:August 17: 3:30 am

▶California (USA) and Vancouver (Canada)
:August 17 2:30 am

▶Alaska (USA): August 17 1:30 am

▶Hawaii(USA), French Polynesia: August 16 at 11:30 pm

——- International Date Line —————————–

▶West Samoa: 10:30 PM on August 17

Now, I declare the end of this 2019 World Yodel Day online event!

Now Hawaii-time has just passed midnight on 8th August 2019.

8th August 2019 no longer exists on Earth. (Of course, there are little bit vague time regions in Pacific. See the map!)

Not everyone will be satisfied, I think 2019 World Yodel Day have been spreading to many people more and more.

Next year, I believe we will can make more good something for the world yodelers.

Now, I declare the end of this 2019 World Yodel Day online event!

Thank you all for the fun together!

World Yodel Day cross to the Northern Hemisphere just one day!

World Yodel Day began in New Zealand and crossed Eurasia through Australia, Korea, China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Austria, Switzerland, France, Holland, Norway, France and the United Kingdom.

World Yodel Day traveled across the Atlantic to the United States, through Argentina and Canada. From ‘Pennsylvania’ in the eastern United States, to Georgia(south)’ ‘Indiana'(Midwest), ‘Colorado’,’Arizona'(Western) and to ‘California’ overlooking the Pacific Ocean.

Unfortunately, we couldn’t cross the Pacific again, but at least World Yodel Day traveled across our northern hemisphere just one day 🙂

World Yodel Day cross to the Northern Hemisphere just one day!

8 August 2019

#yodel#YodelDay#NewZeland#Australia#Korea#China#Vietnam#Bangladesh#Ukraine#Austria#Switzerland#France#AuvergneRhôneAlpes#Aquitaine#Holland#Norway#UnitedKingdom#Argentina#Canada#USA#Pennsylvania#Georgia#Indiana#Colorado#Arizona#California#MaxMacCauley#LayDeeKinMee#JeffPark#KimHyunjin#LuTong#WangXu#ĐinhNgọcHoàng#AbantiSithi#SofiaShkidchenko#Oanano#KarinDiaz#PatriciaBustos#HartwigHermann#MelanieOesche#VirginieDanrey#ColineSicre#HansonFamily#TheresaHanson#DanielHanson#Yodellynne#TanoYodel#FracelleMaria#CatherineThompson#DaveKline#NormGwaltney#Levirichardson#PaulWilliamson#BetsyGay#Gore#Sydney#Seoul#Beijing#DaNang#Kolkata#Kiev#Wien#Niesen#Chambéry#Bordeaux#Preikestolen#HenleyOnThames#Dieppe#NewBrunswick#Acardia#BuenosAires#Adairsville#SinkingSpring#Indianapolis#Florissant#Phoenix#요들#요들의날#요들데이#뉴질랜드#호주#한국#대한민국#중국#베트남#방글라데시#우크라이나#오스트리아#스위스#프랑스#오베르뉴론알프스#아키텐#네덜란드#노르웨이#영국#아르헨티나#캐나다#미국#펜실베니아#조지아#인디아나#콜로라도#아리조나#캘리포니아#맥스멕콜리#레이디킨미#박민성#김현진#루통#왕쑤#딘녹후앙#아반티시티#소피아스키첸코#오아나노#카린디아즈#파트리시아부스토스#하트비그헤르만#멜라니오쉐#버지니단리#콜리네시크르#핸슨페밀리#테레사핸슨#다니엘핸슨#다니엘헨첼#요들린#타노요들#프랑셀마리아#케서린톰슨#데이브클라인#놈그왈트니#레비리처드슨#폴윌리암슨#베시게이#고어#시드니#서울#베이징#다낭#콜카타#켈커타#키예프#비인#비엔나#니센#샹베리#보르도#프레이케스톨렌#헨리온탬즈#디에프#뉴브런즈윅#아카디아#부에노스아이레스#아데어스빌#싱킹스프링#인디애나폴리스#플로리선트#피닉스

If you love yodeling, visit Yodel Day’s Youtube account, Plz subscribe & click ‘like’ : )

http://www.youtube.com/yodelday

http://www.yodelday.com

http://instagram.com/WorldYodelDay

https://yodelday.wordpress.com


peter@yodeler.net

2019 World Yodel Day online event is now only available on YouTube, Instagram and Facebook.

2019 World Yodel Day online event is now only available on YouTube, Instagram and Facebook.

From now on, please enter the following address to enjoy the event. Again, we won’t announce the event anywhere except that site. 
Please enter the address below.

The event will start 12 hours from now.

http://www.youtube.com/yodelday

http://instagram.com/WorldYodelDay

http://www.yodelday.com

peter@yodeler.net

2019 World Yodel Day, it’s now one hour to start

Based on my Korean time, 1 hour later will be the World Yodel Day. Although, World Yodel Day now started in Sydney and Melbourne, and Vladivostok(the Far East of Russia). Furthermore in New Zealand, World Yodel Day started 2 hours before.

If you look around other areas, 2 hours later, the World Yodel Day will begin in China and the Philippines and many countries in Southeast Asia will begin ‘Yodel Day’ in 3 hours later.

[If you want to time differences, look at the followed]

4 hours later : Central Asia and India
5 hours later : the Middle East and East Africa
6 hours later : Moscow and Eastern Europe
7 hours later : Almost Europe countries and South Africa.
8 hours later: London and West Africa

Even most of the American continent are still on August 7th, and the nearest US East is almost 13 hours ahead of Yodel Day.

How do we standardize this time differences from countries to countries?

As the last resort, I am going to start a full-scale online event from noon.

Maybe the noon [Korean standard time] is the most optimization hour almost Asian people, most populated region of the world. I thought it was probably the most appropriate time for the more people to celebrate ‘Yodel Day’ together .

Based in Korean Noon…the time differences like this ;

New Zealand is at 3 pm / Sydney and Vladivostok are at 1 pm/ China and the Philippines are at 11 am / Southeast Asia are 10 am / Central Asia and India are at 9 am/ Middle East and East Africa at 8 am / Eastern Europe is 7 am / Western Europe and South Africa 6 am, and the time of the eastern part of the United States will be moving from August 7th to August 8th.

But the Yodel Day will just begun 1 hours later [in Korean time], and I am too sad to do not anything for a long, so I want to quote a unique articles about yodel before go to bed- [it is time to go to bed in Korea.]

The first article to will be published for 2019 Yodel Day is a paper of yodel written by Georgia. I think this is about a very unique and special yodel- paper that I have not heard anywhere.

Again, thanks to Joseph Jordania, Krimanchuli[Georgian Yodel] researcher, for letting us know about this and letting it go.

I believe a lot of yodel-lovers will be interested it : ) If you want to read it, waiting for an hour~~~~

And Waiting the legitimate World Yodel Day again, I will start it 13 hr later!!!

VARIETIES OF KRIMANCHULI (YODEL) IN WEST GEORGIA’S FOLK SONGS

▶ Before reading

The paper quoting “The diversity of the Western Western folk music Krimanchuli (Yodel)” is published in a symposium held every two years at the INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR TRADITIONAL POLYPHONY in Georgia.

It is an article about the proud folk music “Krimanchuli”, Krimanchuli is an art with a similar vocalism like Yodel, so we can understand the Krimanchuli and yodel are written in almost the same meanings in this articles.

Although unfamiliar to us, Georgia is a country that is actively researching and disseminating folk music from around the world in terms of polyphonic music.

It is full of very surprising and strange stories. And all the stories are talking with clear references.

Today on August 8th, World Yodel Day, I will share this article with yodelers all over the world. I hope that article will be a good opportunities for many people to improve yodeling knowledges and new yodeling-imaginations.

This article is original text written by KETEVAN MANJGALADZE in Georgian and translated by MARINA KUBANEISHVILI in English.

I am particularly grateful to the original author for allowing me to post this article and special thanks to Joseph Jordania for giving me this article.

peter Lim

VARIETIES OF KRIMANCHULI (YODEL) IN WEST GEORGIA’S FOLK SONGS

by KETEVAN MANJGALADZE

The richness of polyphonic forms and the diversity of singing styles of Georgian folk songs resulted in the creation of a rich musical terminology, where a particularly important place is ascribed to the names of the parts.

Georgian musical practice has preserved a great number of terms designating voices. Due to the incomplete sources these names exceed 50 in number.

They are: mtkmeli, damtsqebi, mtsqebeli, tsamomtsqebi (all the listed terms denote different variants indicating the leading part); shemkhmobari, modzakhili and momdzakhneli (the voices accompanying the lead voice – the second part); maghali bani (a high bass); ertiani bani (a stable bass part); khmieri (bass part); bani; dvrini (drone); shemdegi, dubi, gebi and zili (a high-pitched part . discant, a high voice); bokhi (low-pitched voice); krimanchuli (yodel), gadadzakhili (call and response); chamomrtmevi (a cut-in substituting part); tsvrili (a high-pitched voice); krini (the voice more high-pitched than zili); gamqivani, gamkivani, qivani, kivani, kivan (high-pitched voices in the dialects of different provinces of Georgia); pirveli khma; meore khma; momgherali mgalobeli; tsinamdzghvari khma; tsinamdzghvari mgalobeli; mtavari mgalobeli; melekse; shemghighinebeli; kapia; tavi; mechipashi (metsvrile); gamachqapali; zebani ≪mazhogh≫ (a lead voice); meubne; chipe; mechem; zhimubne; damtsqebiti khmai (a lead voice); pitskhi khmai, shemodzakhili; tsqeba . . .

The purpose of this study is to manifest the essence and timbre characteristics of krimanchuli (yodel).

Krimanchuli is a guttural voice creating melodic figurations and jumps depending on the performer’s wishes and his ability to keep the breath.

In the songs of west Georgian provinces , Imereti and Samegrelo, Krimanchuli seldom occurs and it never occurs in Abkhazia and Svaneti. The most unique specimens of polyphonic singing are represented by Achara and Guria’s folk songs, some part names of which are still preserved.

They are:

1. Krini, krimanchuli, tsvrili, gamqivani (different degrees of high-pitched voices);

2. Mtkmeli, damtsqebi, mtsqebeli modzakhili (variants of a leading,mostly a middle voice);

3. Bani (bass, the lowest part)

4. Shemkhmobari (pedal drone, sounding mostly around the same range as the second, leading voice).

While listening to a music piece one is first of all attracted by the melody mainly performed in high-pitched voices. The basis of Guria’s folk songs is contrasting polyphony. Every melodic line and every peculiarity of each voice is distinctly distinguished.

The well-known principle of imitation is never present here. Of all the voices krimanchuli stands out most clearly and makes a special impact on the listener.

Scholars, travellers and ethnographers of the 19th and 20th centuries often voiced their opinions about this high-pitched voice.

A famous traveller, Gvaramadze by name who lived for a number of years in the village of Makvaneti which was considered to be a “cradle of singers”, observed the Gurians’ customs and devoted a remarkable essay to the subject in the bulletin Mogzauri (Traveller) in 1901.

He wrote: “The extraordinary quality of Gurian songs can be ascribed to the singing of local birds: thrushes, nightingales and others rejoicing in nature by their whistling, twittering and chanting incessantly day and night in May and charming the Gurians’ ears. And the overwhelmed listeners imitate them delightedly” (Gvaramadze, 1901:574).

According to an ethnographer Apolon Tsuladze krimanchuli occupies a special place in a Gurian song. Krimanchuli or kirkantuli as the best connoisseurs of it profess is a lead voice, but like ghighini (humming), krimanchuli is sometimes performed individually.

A youth left alone sang krimanchuli on the road, in the field, in the forest. Krimanchuli helped when a person felt lonely and frightened; it drove away fear, boredom.

When a youngster was sent on an errand at night he was told: “Go to the place you’re bound to and krimanchuli on the way”.

Krimanchuli was sometimes sung by a shepherd.

If his peer echoed him from the opposite side, it sounded like a contest of two shepherds playing the soinari (west Georgian panpipe) or salamuri (a pipe). Krimanchuli was very fascinating to listen to,

especially in a moonlit night” (Tsuladze, 1971:13).

It should be specially stressed that krimanchuli has sometimes been performed individually, that is, it has been performed by one person not accompanied by other voices. It can supposedly be individually performed nowadays.

However we do not possess any record of it either in collected essays

or in any other written sources. This kind of performing krimanchuli was used to express human emotions and had a certain purpose. It is supposed that people used gestures for communication and a dialogue was carried out by a call and response dialogue performed by shouting to each other especially at a long distance.

Primitive man at an early stage acquired musical sounds on the imitative basis, on the other hand biophysiological moments were of great significance.

“Joy, fear, pain, grief were expressed by means of producing corresponding sounds” (Gruber, 1960:5).

Krimanchuli is often compared to a cock’s cook-a-doodle-doo. Imitating a bird is not accidental. The first part that might have sounded in human consciousness was a high pitched sound produced by an animal, particularly by a bird.

It is essential to note that the musical sounds directed to heaven are called chanting. In modern Georgian the word chanting (galoba) is associated with birds: it is also connected to the sacred music.

The problem of the term krimanchuli was first addressed in a publication by Pilimon Koridze: “The word krini (discant) indicates a woman’s high-pitched voice, tenor. It is produced in the chest, when this voice goes beyond its boundary, it turns into krini and turns, twists, swirls while producing the high-pitched sounds and this is the reason why it is called krimanchuli” (Koridze, 1901:3).

The interpretation of krimanchuli by Koridze as a twisting krini coincides with popular opinion.

The term krimanchuli itself must belong to a much earlier date.

Ivane Javakhishvili in his groundbreaking work “Main Issues of the History of Georgian Music” gives a deep insight and well-grounded analysis of the etymology of krimanchuli as a high-pitched voice of a song.

The author proves that krimanchuli originates from krini. The old Georgian krini must be a modification of knini, which means small, thin.

If we recall that the name of the lowest-pitched voice dvrini (humming) ends in the syllable ni, it may be concluded that in both cases ni does not belong to the root of the word but is a formative; thus kri should be asserted as being the root of the word.

Therefore, concludes Javakhishvili, kri is the root and krini means “thin”; (Javakhishvili,1938:299-300).

On a closer inspection we can see that the word krimanchuli is composed of two words.

Kri – denoting a high-pitched voice; krinav hardly producing a sound (Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani Dictionary), krinti means producing a sound, a short one (there are some Georgian phrases illustrating the meaning: Krinti – Don’t you utter a word; krinta means a small piece of salt or sugar and also denotes a small quantity, kricha – means jaws, manchvagrekha

(the verb distort/twist/turn) according to the Georgian explanatory dictionary are the terms connected with mimicry, the interpretation of which is accorded a great deal of attention in the process of a song’s performance. Meanwhile it should be mentioned that manchia is a white-necked bird turning its neck all the time” (Ghlonti, 1984:344).

The 94-year-old peasant Lomineishvili (bass) says: “Why does it have this name? You should just look at a man’s face who sings krimanchuli what he looks like. How he twists and turns his voice. One can’t guess what he is up to and why” (Fieldwork Diary of the International Centre for Georgian Song and the International Research Center for Traditional Polyphony, May of 2004).

Tsrtialeba – “They call their parents with tsriaki – the sounds produced by chickens (Abuladze, 1973:550) and kriakhi – cackling of frightened chickens and the sounds produced by some birds” (Chikobava, 1986:270).

As regards to gamqivari, this term denotes a very high-pitched voice and the performer has the same name as the voice.

The performer of krimanchuli and gamqivani is the same person (Chikobava, 1951:937).

The voice has a specific timbre, a formula of a small range, ostinato, spontaneously rising call and response character summoning people to help with harvesting or other kind of field work.

Krimanchuli differs from gamqivani mainly in the range. Krimanchuli contains jumps at long intervals (usually fifth plus a third, resulting in a frequent use of seventh intervals).

The proximity of krimanchuli to gamqivani causes the performer to shift from krimanchuli to gamqivani or vice versa depending on the performer.

All the formulae represent the example of harmonious ostinato. The clearly cut sounds (fifth, or fifth + third below) create a harmonic frame in a three- or four-part polyphonic texture. Vertically intense polyphony is created; that is in a three-part song the impression of a five-part singing is achieved, and a four-part song sounds like a six-part one.

According to Akhobadze, krimanchuli joins the song when the low-pitched voice . bani (bass) – becomes the active performer of the melodic line, that is, the bani loses the function of a harmonic basis whereas krimanchuli restores the harmonic basis of the song by means

of specific ornamental embellishments from above.

According to J. Jordania, krimanchuli joins the song not only when the base loses the function of a harmonic basis, but it can be frequently heard with another stable voice simultaneously. For example, in naduri

(harvest) songs krimanchuli goes together with shemkhmobari (a specific pedal drone in the middle of the four-part polyphonic texture) (Jordania, 1989:144).

Gamqivani and krimanchuli are performed without a text, as a combination of syllables or vowels: i.a, u.a, a.i, uru-a, .ho, tir.tir.tir, rim.ti.ri, ri.a.ho, voi.i.ai.hoi, vo.ia, a.ri.a, i.ri.a, i.ri.ai.ho, ur.va.ho, ir.va.ho, i.si.a.ho, i.ni.a, rim.ti.ri, rim.di.ri, o.ia and others.

Similar to Georgian krimanchuli, a yodel is also performed on vowels and syllables in different part of the World: Europe, Asia and Africa.

The tradition of singers from Switzerland, Austrian Tyrol and pygmies from Central Africa rainforests deserve a special attention.

Back in 1897, when Tyrolese singers arrived in Georgia from Saltzburg, the striking resemblance between the yodel and krimanchuli was noticed. “It is amazing that the songs we heard today performed by the Tyrolese singers bear a striking resemblance to the Gurian songs” (Annonimous aithor, 1897:3).

The chords are constructed in European major-minor harmonic system. In the course of centuries the reserve of the river Moya (central Switzerland) was comparatively isolated. This ensured the preservation of the yodel tradition.

Scholars remark that originally the yodel began as a vocal imitation of alphorn music, in other words, people imitated the sound of the instrument while labouring. Shepherds communicated by means of the alphorn.

A phenomenon similar to krimanchuli is characteristic of the African Pygmies who are considered to possess a specific and rare singing culture even within Africa.

The vocal yodel in their music is connected with rhythmic polyphony and is performed accompanied by percussion instruments or clapping. The polyphony of the Pygmies is based on the principle of imitation. This principle comes from the yodel technique.

An interesting analysis and conclusions are given in a short article by a French scholar Pier Salle “The Collection of Live Traditional Music” (The article was written by the researcher in 1966 on the basis of recordings of songs performed by Gaboni Bibeac pygmies).

“As it is known, according to the yodel principle the voice is divided into two registers. The singer carries out two chest shifts, the forward and backward movements of falsetto is unchanged in two registers of the vocal possibilities. This sequence of sounds opposed in height and even more so, in timbre (a softer falsetto) ends in a successive fall and rise of

the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh’s intervals” (Salle, 1975).

Of the materials obtained by us the most interesting ones are ritual entertaining songs connected with hunting and the collecting of honey.

For example: an entertaining song recorded at a forest camp near Digbo.

The mentioned specimens corroborate the fact of existing the similar phenomenon on different continents of the world: – in the middle of Euro-Asia (Guria-Achara . krimanchuli) in mountainous regions of Europe (yodel in the Alps), and in Africa among the Pygmies.

This fact may become the object of thorough study in the future.

English Translated by MARINA KUBANEISHVILI

References

Abuladze, Ilia (1973). Dzveli Kartuli Enis Leksikoni (The Dictionary of Old Georgian Language).Tbilisi: Metsniereba (in Georgian)

Anonimous author (1897). Teatris Matiane. Sokhumi (History of Theatre. Sukhumi). Newspaper Tsnobis Purtseli (in Georgian)

Chiqobava, Arnold (editor). (1951). Kartuli Enis Ganmartebiti Leksikoni (The Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language). Tbilisi: Sakartvelos SSR Metsnierebata Akademia (in Georgian)

Chikobava, Arnold (Editor in Chief) ( 1986). Kartuli Enis Ganmartebiti Leksikoni (The Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language). Tbilisi: Sakartvelos SSR Metsnierebata Akademia (in Georgian)

Glonti, Alexandre (1984). Kartul Kilo-Tkmata Sitqvis Kona (The Dictionary of Georgian Modes and Idioms). Tbilisi: Ganatleba (in Georgian)

Gruber, Roman (1960). Vseobshchaia Istoria Muziki (The General History of Music), part 1. Moscow: Muzgiz (in Russian)

Gvaramadze, Konstantine (1901). Guria (Guria). Mogzauri (The Traveller), ## 6-7:573-574 (in Georgian)

Javakhishvili, Ivane (1938). Kartuli Musikis Istoriis Dziritadi Sakitkhebi (Main Issues of the History of Georgian Music). Tbilisi: Federatsia (in Georgian)

Jordania, Joseph (1989). Gruzinskoe Traditsionnoe Mnogogolosie v Mezhdunarodnom Kontekste Mnogogolosnikh Kultur (Georgian Traditional Polyphony in the International Context of Polyphonic

Cultures. Problem of the Origins of Polyphony). Tbilisi University Press (in Russian with English summary)

Koridze, Pilimon (1901). Kartuli Musikis Shesakheb (On Georgian Music) The Iveria newspaper, # 96, p. 3 (in Georgian)

Pataridze, Ramaz (1980). Kartuli Asomtavruli (The Georgian Script) Tbilisi: Nakaduli (in Georgian)

Sale, Pier (1975). Jodel et Proc Edes Contrapunctiques des Pygmees (Yodel and Contrapuntal Performance among Pygmies). The article was translated from French into Georgian by Nino Kalandadze in 1999 (manuscript from the Archive of Tbilisi State Conservatoire)

Tsuladze, Apolon (1971). Etnograpiuli Guria (The Ethnographic Guria). Tbilisi: Sabchota Sakartvelo (in Georgian)